A new study reveals that after short-term exposure to vehicle pollution, mice showed significant brain damage -- including signs associated with memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. The mind-numbing toxin is not an exhaust gas, but a mix of tiny particles from burning of fossil fuel and weathering of car parts and pavement, according to the study to be published April 7 in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
Many studies have drawn a link between vehicle pollution and health problems. This is the first to explore the physical effect of freeway pollution on brain cells. The authors found a way to recreate air laden with freeway particulate matter inside the laboratory. Whether in a test tube or in live mice, brain cells showed similar responses: Neurons involved in learning and memory showed significant damage,
The brain showed signs of inflammation associated with premature aging and Alzheimer’s disease, Neurons from developing mice did not grow as well. The freeway particles measured between a few dozen to 200 nanometers -- roughly one-thousandth the width of a human hair, and too small for car filtration systems to trap. “You can’t see them, but they are inhaled and have an effect on brain neurons that raises the possibility of long-term brain health consequences of freeway air,” said senior author Caleb.
Co-author Constantinos Sioutas, of the USC Viterbi School of Engineering, developed the unique technology for collecting freeway particulates in a liquid suspension and recreating polluted air in the laboratory. This made it possible to conduct a controlled study on cultured brain cells and live animals.
Exposure lasted a total of 150 hours, spread over 10 weeks, in three sessions per week lasting five hours each.
“Of course this leads to the question, ‘How can we protect urban dwellers from this type of toxicity?’ And that’s a huge unknown,” Finch, an expert in brain cells and ageing said. If further studies confirm that freeway particulates pose a human health hazard, solutions will be hard to find.
Even an all-electric car culture would not solve the problem on its own, Finch said. .(Courtesy :Science Daily)