Life Style

Single herb series: GUDUCHI (Tinospora Cordifolia)

Single herb series: GUDUCHI (Tinospora Cordifolia)
By Nagaland Post | Publish Date: 9/29/2019 6:41:15 AM IST

 Tinospora cordifolia commonly known as “amrita “or” Guduchi” climbing shrub found throughout India. T. cordifolia is an endangered rasayana herb. The climbing shrub has shown great potential for the development of biopharmaceuticals products for the treatment of various diseases.

GUDUCHI (Tinospora Cordifolia): 

Scientific Name: Tinospora Cordifolia

Kingdom : Plantae

Family : Menispermaceae

Genus : Tinospora

Species : T.cordifolia

VERNACULAR NAMES 

Sanskrit name: amrita or Guduchi

Hindi : Giloe, Gurcha

Bengali : Gulancha

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF GUDUCHI: Tinospora cordifolia is a large deciduous, extensively spreading climbing shrub with a number of coiling branches. Different parts of Tinospora have following type of morphology. 

STEM: Stem of this plant is rather succulent with long, filiform, fleshy and climbing in nature. Aerialroots arise from the branches. The bark is creamy white to grey in colour and deeply left. 

ARIAL ROOT: Arial roots are present; these aerial roots are characterized by tetra to penta-arch primary structure. However, cortex of root is divided in to outer thick walled and inner parenchymatous.

LEAVES: Leaves of this plant are simple, alternate, exstipulate,long petioled approximately 15 cm round, pulvinate, heart shaped, twisted partially and half way round. Lamina is ovate, 10-20 cm long, 7 nerved and deeply cordate at the base and membranous.

FLOWERS: Flowers are unisexual, racemes, greenish yellow in colour, appears when plant is leaf less. Male flowers are clustered and female flowers exist in solitary inflorescence. Sepals are 6 in 2 series of 3 each. Outer ones are smaller than the inner sepals. Petals are also 6, smaller than sepals, free and membranous. Flowering occurs during March to June they are orange-red in colour, fleshy, aggregate of 1-3 and ovoid, smooth, drupelets on thick stalk.

FRUIT: They are orange-red in colour, fleshy, aggregate of 1-3 and ovoid, smooth, drupelets on thick stalk with a sub terminal style scars. Fruits develop during winter.

Seed Curved seed have been reported in this species. Hence this family is named as moonseed family also. As seeds are curved in shape, embryo also turned in to curve shape automatically. Moreover, the endocarp is variously ornamented and provides important taxonomic characters.

DISTRIBUTION & HABITAT Plant is distributed throughout the tropical region of India upto 1,200 m above sea level. It is commonly cultivated throughout the country. Plant is found in Assam, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh pan India. It grows almost throughout in India.

DOSE:

• In powder form 3-6 g of the drug. 

• In decoction form 20-30 g of the drug. 

MEDICINAL USES OF GUDUCHI:

• Steam: The stem of Tinospora cordifolia is one of the constituents of several Ayurveda preparations used in general debility, dyspepsia, fever and urinary diseases. The stem is bitter, stomachic, diuretic, stimulates bile secretion, causes constipation, allays thirst, burning sensation, vomiting, enriches the blood and cures jaundice. The extract of its stem is useful in skin diseases. 

• Bark of T. cordifolia has anti –spasmodic, anti-pyretic, and anti-allergic and anti –leprotic properties The aqueous extract of T. cordifolia root has anti-oxidant property.

• Guduchi is also used for soothing inflamed and injured mucous membranes in the digestive tract. It protects the stomach and duodenum by increasing the production of mucin. 

• For treatment of cancer, the powder root and stem is used along with milk.

• In Ayurvedic system of medicine, it has a special place as an effective adaptogen and aphrodisiac. 

• The drug is well known and prescribed for Fevers, Diabetes, Jaundice, Urinary Problem, Skin diseases anemia etc.

• It is used for Anti-Periodic, Anti-Spasmodic, Anti-Inflammatory Immuno-Modulatory, Anti-Tumour, Anti-Allergic and Anti-Pyretic properties. 

• The extract of stem, bark, roots, and leaves shows strong Antioxidant Activity.

RECENT STUDIES ON GUDUCHI:

• Bark of Tinospora Cordifolia was successfully experiments on diabetic male albino rats It has been observed that polyherbal formulation of T. cordifolia possesses favourable effect in patient with HIV infection 

• Anti-inflammatory- The water extract of the stem of Tinospora cordifolia has been checked for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats. It has significantly inhibited acute inflammatory response evoked by carrageen in when administered orally and intra-peritoneal. 

• It also works as immune-modulator in diseases like obstructive jaundice, hepatic fibrosis, peritonitis, and sepsis. 

• In Urinary disorder, the juice of the roots is very much effective. This plant has great potential for developing useful drugs. 

• The leaves extract have shown anti-HIV 1 activity. 

• Role of Tinospora cordifolia can be seen in tumor suppression also. Studies have shown that the polysaccharide fraction of T. cordifolia, when injected intra-peritoneal in mice, resulted in the inhibition of lung metastatic coloniesn.

• Giloy (Tinospora cordofolia) is widely used against monkey malaria. Studies have shown that giloy juice which is a mixture of Giloy herb and Tulsi leaves increases body resistance up to 3 times and serves as a powerful counter of Plasmodium virus attacks. 

CONCLUSION: Tinospora cordifolia is also known as the Plant of Ayurveda and also  endangered rasayana herb of India and holds a special position as a potent adaptogen and aphrodisiac in Ayurvedic System of Medicine. The plant is rich in many phyto-constituents that are useful in drug designing. These studies place this indigenous drug a novel candidate for bioprospection and drug development for the treatment of such diseases as cancer, liver disorders, ulcers, diabetes, heart diseases and post-menopausal syndrome, etc. where satisfactory cure managements are still not available..

Note: The content in this article are for general information/educational purpose only.

 Chairman, Nagaland Ayurveda and Folk Medicine Society, Aoyimkum, Dimapur: Nagaland, nagalandayurvedafolkmedicine@gmail.com

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