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UNMADA (SCHIZOPHRENIA): AN AYURVEDIC PRESPECTIVE

UNMADA (SCHIZOPHRENIA): AN AYURVEDIC PRESPECTIVE
By Nagaland Post | Publish Date: 9/9/2019 6:00:57 AM IST

 “For schizophrenia, the recovery rate with drug therapy is under 15%. With nutritional therapy, the recovery rate is 80%.”— Abram Hoffer

UNMADA: According to Acharya Charak Unnmad, is the manasvyadhi is which understood as the unsettled condition of the Manas (mind), Buddhi (understanding), Samjna (consciousness), Gnana (perception), Smriti (memory), Bhakti (inclination), Sheela (character), Chesta (behaviour), and Achara (conduct) . As a result Citta gets disturbed and in turn causes impairment of Budhhi. Due to this, the individual person feel different sign and symptoms like loss of confidence, irrelevant talk, biased willing and thinking, deprived memory/ decision/ orientation and responsiveness.
SCHIZOPHRENIA The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time.
UNMAD NIDAN (AETIOLOGY):
• Viruddhahara (incompatible foods)
• Ashuchi ahara (infected /contaminated food)
• Deva-guru-dwija pragharshana (insult towards teachers and elders)
• Mano abhighata (Mental shock)
• Bhaya (Fear)
• Harsha (unusual /unnatural pleasure due to accidental happening). Etc
SCHIZOPHRENIA AETIOLOGY: 
• Heredity: 
• Abnormality in brain 
• Environment 
• Brain chemistry
•  Substance abuse
• Prenatal
UNMAD TYPES: Five types of Unmad 
• Vataj Unmad
• Pittaja Unmad
• Kaphaja Unmad
• Sannipataja Unmad 
• Agantuja Unmad.
SCHIZOPHRENIA TYPES: There are four sub types of schizophrenia. 
• Catatonic type schizophrenia
• Paranoid type schizophrenia
• Disorganised type schizophrenia
• Residual type schizophrenia.
UNMAD SAMPRAPTI (PATHOGENESIS) : Due to favourable causative factors the morbidity ascends upwards to the mind, from the main site of heart. This leads to functional disturbance in its main location(heart) as well as disposed areas like brain and its various relative compartments. Due to this, the individual gets false belief or delutions and person appear as if intoxicated due to unawareness or the situation. This condition is called Unmada.
SCHIZOPHRENIA Pathophysiology : Anatomic, neurotransmitter, and immune system abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia
UNMAD CLINICAL FEATURE
• Disorganized speech
• Hallucination (mainly auditory) 
• Bizarre behavior 
• Social withdrawal 
• Deterioration of personal hygiene 
• Insomnia 
• Excited motor signs- shout, talk rapidly, act out in violence
SCHIZOPHRENIA CLINICAL FEATURE: 
• Irrelevant talking (saying illogical things) 
• Swan Karnyo 
• Talk to themselves, laughing, dancing, singing suddenly without explanation, maintain rigid pose for hours
• Less talkative, less movements 
• Shaucha dvesha 
• Nidranasha 
• Irritation, anger, excitement on inappropriate occasions
 UNMAD CHIKITSA (Treatment): Patient suffering from Unmad first he/she should be treated with Sneha (unction) and Sweda (sudation) and then subjected for evacuation with drastic emetics, purgatives and Shirovirechan.
Shodhan Chikitsa: The described principle of management is as follows. Vataj Unmad: Snehan followed by mridu shodhan Pittaj Unmad: Virechan (purgation) Kaphaj Unmad: Vaman (emesis) after elimination therapy Samsarjan Krama (dietic) regimen should be followed. 
Shaman Chikitsa: It includes oral use of different single and compound herbal and herbo-mineral formulations. 
Physical and mental shock therapy: Ayurveda especially emphasis on physical and mental shock therapies in Unmad patients for restoring the derailed thought process. The methods advocated in principle are as Bhaya Darshan (causing fright), Vismapana (surprise), Vismarana (obligation of memory), Kshobhana (administration of irritants), Harshana (elation of spirits), Bharthsana (threats), Bandhan (bindings), Swapna (induction of hypnosis) and Samvahan (gentle massage). 
Sattvavajaya Chikitsa: It is a non pharmacological approach for treating the mental disorders and equal to psychotherapy.
Ayurveda has described three types of management for every disease viz; 
• Daiva Vyapashrya Chikitsa (Spiritual Therapy)
• Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (Ayurvedic Psychotherapy)
• Yukti Vyapashraya Chikitsa which includes Shodhan i.e. elimination of vitiated Doshas by Panchkarma therapy and Sanshaman that is alleviation of Doshas by different type drugs, diets and activities. 
Type of formulation Name of Formulation
 
Single drugs Vacha
Jyotishmati
Ghrita Hingwadi Ghrita
Kalyanak Ghrita
MahaKalyanak Ghrita
Mahapaishachik Ghrita
Lashunadi Ghrita
Shiva Ghrita
Churna Saraswat Churna
Tail Shiva Tail
Bhasma/Rasaushadhis Unmad Parpati Rasa
Unmadbhanjani Vatika
Unmadgajakesari Rasa
Unmadgajankusha Rasa
Unmadbhanjan Rasa
Chaturbhuj Rasa
 
 
 
Ayurveda has many herbal and herbo-mineral formulations in different dosage forms. Majority of these drugs are either Ghrita preparations or Rasaushadhis. Ghrita have nootropic action as the Mastiska (brain) is made up of Meda (fatty substances). The Rasaushadhis are chiefly made up of minerals and metals. Due to small doses, tastelessness, quick action and Rasayan properties Rasaaushadhis are more popular and superior over the other medicines. Beside above mentioned formulations so many herbal and herbo-mineral formulations are described in various Ayurvedic texts for the management of Unmada. The safety and efficacy of these drugs are depending upon the manufacturing of these drugs. By using these drugs as alone or in proper combinations or as adjuvant to allopathic drugs we can not only control but also cure the Unmada
NOTE: Ayurvedic medicines and treatments should be taken under Qualified Ayurvedic Doctor/Physician. The drugs described in this article are for general information/educational purpose only. Anyone should not use these without consulting a qualified Ayurveda doctor/physician. The dose and duration of the treatment may be decided by the physician according to the condition of the patient. 
Dr. Imlikumba, Medical Officer (Ayurveda), North Eastern Institute of Folk Medicine (NEIFM),                                                                                      Ministry Of AYUSH, Govt. of India, Pasighat: Arunachal Pradesh imlikumba@gmail.com

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